Sake or saké is a Japanese alcoholic beverage made from
This beverage is called sake in English, but in Japanese, sake refers to alcoholic drinks in general. The Japanese term for this specific
beverage is Nihonshu, meaning "Japanese sake".
Left: Japanese sake flask (tokkuri)
and takowasa (octopus with wasabi paste, a Japanese side dish).
Sake is also referred to in English as rice wine. However, unlike true wine, in
which alcohol is produced by fermenting the sugar naturally present in fruit,
sake is made through a brewing process more like that of beer. To make beer or
sake, the sugar needed to produce alcohol must first be converted from starch.
But the brewing process for sake differs from beer brewing as well, notably in
that for beer, the conversion of starch to sugar and sugar to alcohol occurs in
two discrete steps, but with sake they occur simultaneously. Additionally,
alcohol content also differs between sake, wine, and beer. Wine generally
contains 9–16% alcohol and most beer is 3–8%, whereas undiluted sake is 18–20%
alcohol, although this is often lowered to around 15% by diluting the sake with
water prior to bottling.
In Japan sake is served chilled, at room temperature, or
heated, depending on the preference of the drinker, the quality of the sake, and
the season. Typically, hot sake is a winter drink, and high-grade sake is not
drunk hot, because the flavors and aromas will be lost. This masking of flavor
is the reason that low-quality sake is often served hot.
Sake is usually drunk from small cups called choko and poured into the choko
from ceramic flasks called tokkuri. Saucer-like cups called sakazuki are also
used, most commonly at weddings and other ceremonial occasions. Recently, footed
glasses made specifically for premium sake have also come into use.
Another traditional cup is the masu, a box usually made of hinoki or sugi, which
was originally used for measuring rice. In some Japanese restaurants, as a show
of generosity, the server may put a glass inside the masu or put the masu on a
saucer and pour until sake overflows and fills both containers.
Left: Traditional types of
cups for drinking sake.
Aside from being served straight, sake can be used as a mixer for cocktails,
such as the
In general, it is best to keep sake refrigerated in a cool or dark room, as
prolonged exposure to heat or direct light will lead to spoilage. Sake stored at
room temperature is best consumed within a few months after purchase.
After opening the bottle of sake, it is
recommended to finish it within 2 days. This is because once premium sake
is opened, it begins to oxidize which affects the taste. If the sake is kept in
the refrigerator for more than 3 days, it will lose its "best" flavor. However,
this does not mean it should be disposed of if not consumed. Generally, sake can
keep very well and still taste just fine after weeks in the fridge. How long a
sake will remain drinkable depends on the actual product itself, and whether it
is sealed with a wine vacuum top.