Prosciutto is the Italian word for ham. In English, the term
prosciutto is almost always used for a dry-cured ham that is usually
sliced thin and served uncooked; this style is called prosciutto crudo in
Italian and is distinguished from cooked ham, prosciutto cotto.
Left: Prosciutto di Parma.
Commonly associated with Tuscany and Emilia, the most renowned and expensive
legs of prosciutto come from central and northern Italy, such as those of Parma,
Friuli-Venezia Giulia, and San Daniele.
The word prosciutto derives from the Latin
perexsuctum, which gave way to the modern Italian word prosciugare,
meanings "to thoroughly dry".
The process of making prosciutto can take anywhere from nine
months to two years, depending on the size of the ham.
The ham is first cleaned, salted, and left for about two months. During this
time the ham is pressed, gradually and carefully to avoid breaking the bone, to
drain all blood left in the meat. Next it is washed several times to remove the
salt and hung in a dark, well-ventilated environment.
Left: Sea salt being
The surrounding air is
important to the final quality of the ham; the best results are obtained in a
cold climate. The ham is then left until dry. The amount of time this takes
varies, depending on the local climate and size of the ham. When the ham is
completely dry it is hung to air, either at room temperature or in a controlled
environment, for up to eighteen months.
Sliced prosciutto crudo in Italian cuisine is often served as an antipasto,
wrapped around grissini or, especially in summer, cantaloupe or honeydew.
It can also be wrapped in fresh mozzarella. It is eaten as accompaniment to
cooked spring vegetables, such as asparagus or peas. It may be included in a
simple pasta sauce made with cream, or a Tuscan dish of tagliatelle and
vegetables. It is used in stuffings for other meats, such as veal, as a wrap
around veal or steak, in a filled bread, or as a pizza topping.
Saltimbocca is a famous Italian veal dish, where escalopes of veal are
topped with a sage leaf before being wrapped in prosciutto and then pan-fried.
Prosciutto is often served in sandwiches and panini with basil, tomato and fresh
mozzarella. A basic sandwich served in some European cafes and bars consists of
prosciutto in a croissant.